Civil Code of the Russian Federation (GK RF) > Part 4 > Section VII. Rights to the results of intellectual activity and means of individualization > Chapter 70. Copyright

Article 1255. Copyright
1. Intellectual rights in works of science, literature, and art are considered as copyright rights.
2. The following rights belong to the author of a work:
1) the exclusive right in the work;
2) authorship right;
3) the right of the author in his name;
4) inviolability of the work;
5) the right to make the work public.
3. In cases provided by the present Code, other rights belong to the author of the work along with the rights indicated in Paragraph 2 of the present Article, including the right to demand remuneration for the use of an employee’s work, withdrawal right, droit de suite, and the right of access to works of art.

Article 1256. Validity of the Exclusive Right in Works of Science, Literature, and Art within the Territory of the Russian Federation
1. The exclusive right in works of science, literature, and art shall extend:
1) to works made public within the territory of the Russian Federation or not made public but existing in some objective form within the territory of the Russian Federation and shall be recognized for authors (or their legal successors) regardless of their citizenship;
2) to works made public outside the territory of the Russian Federation or not made public but existing in some objective form outside the territory of the Russian Federation and shall be recognized for authors who are citizens of the Russian Federation (or their legal successors);

3) to works made public outside the territory of the Russian Federation or not made public but existing in some objective form outside the territory of the Russian Federation and shall be recognized, in accordance with international treaties of the Russian Federation, within the territory of the Russian Federation for authors (or their legal successors) who are citizens of other states and persons without citizenship.
2. A work also shall be considered first made public by publication in the Russian Federation if, within thirty days after the date of first publication outside the territory of the Russian Federation, it was published within the territory of the Russian Federation.
3. In the grant of protection to a work within the territory of the Russian Federation in accordance with international treaties of the Russian Federation, the author of the work or other initial rightholder shall be determined according to the law of the country within the territory of which the legal fact took place that served as the basis for obtaining copyright.
4. Provision of protection to works within the territory of the Russian Federation in accordance with international treaties of the Russian Federation shall be done with respect to works that have not entered the public domain in the country of origin of the work as the result of the expiration of the term of validity of the exclusive right in these works established in such country and have not entered into the public domain in the Russian Federation as the result of the expiration of the term established in the present Code for the validity of the exclusive right thereto.

Article 1257. Author of a Work
The author of a work of science, literature, or art is the person by whose creative labor the work was made. The person indicated as the author on the original or other copy of a work shall be considered its author, unless proved otherwise.

Article 1258. Coauthorship
1. Persons who have created a work by joint creative labor are coauthors regardless of whether such a work forms a single inseparable whole or consists of parts each of which has independent significance.
2. A work created in coauthorship shall be used by coauthors jointly, unless otherwise provided by an agreement among. In case when such work forms an inseparable whole, no coauthor shall have the right to prohibit the use of such work without sufficient basis.

Part of a work the use of which is possible independently, i.e., a part having independent significance, may be used by its author at his own discretion unless otherwise provided by an agreement among the coauthors.
3. The rules of Paragraph 3 of Article 1229 of the present Code shall apply respectively to relations of coauthors connected with the distribution of income from the use of the work and with the disposition of the exclusive right in the work.
4. Each of the coauthors shall have the right to take measures for the protection of his rights independently, including cases when a work created by coauthors forms an inseparable whole.

Article 1295. Employee’s work
1. The copyright to a work of science, literature, or art created within the limits of the labor obligations established for an employee (author) (an employee’s work) shall belong to the author.
2. The exclusive right in an employee’s work shall belong to the employer unless a labor contract or other contract between the employer and the author has provided otherwise.

If the employer within the course of three years from the day when the employee’s work was put at its disposition does not begin the use of this work, does not transfer the exclusive right in it to another person, or does not inform the author of keeping the work in secrecy, the exclusive right in the employee’s work shall belong to the author.
If the employer, within the term provided in the second subparagraph of the present Paragraph begins the use of an employee’s work or transfers the exclusive right in another person, the author shall have the right to demand remuneration. The author shall obtain the abovementioned right to demand remuneration also in the case when the employer has taken the decision to keep the employee’s work in secrecy and for this reason has not begun the use of this work within the abovementioned term. The amount of remuneration, the conditions and procedure for its payment by the employer shall be defined by the contract between him and the employee and, in case of dispute, by a court.
Right to remuneration for the employee’s work is inalienable and shall not be devolved, however author’s rights according to the contract between the employer and the author, and incomes not received by the author shall be devolved to the successors.

3. In the case when in accordance with Paragraph 2 of the present Article the exclusive right in an employee’s work belongs to the author, the employer shall have the right to use such work under conditions of simple (non-exclusive) license with payment of remuneration to the rightholder. Limits of the employee’s work use, the amount of remuneration, the conditions and procedure for its payment by the employer shall be defined by the contract between the author and the employee and, in case of dispute, by a court.
4. The employer shall have the right to make employee’s work public unless otherwise provided by the contract between him and the employee as well as in use of an employee’s work indicate his own name or the designation or require such an indication.

Article 1300. Copyright Management Information
1. Information about copyright is any information that identifies a work, an author, or other rightholder or information about the terms of use of a work that is contained in the original or on a copy of a work, is attached to it or appears in connection with communication by wireless means or by wire or by the bringing of such a work to the public and also any numbers or codes in which such information is contained.

2. With respect to works the following shall not be allowed:
1) removing or changing information about copyright without the permission of the author or other rightholder;
2) reproduction, distribution, import for purposes of distribution, public performance, communication by wireless means or by wire, or bringing to the public of works with respect to which information about copyright has been removed or changed without the permission of the author or other rightholder.